French River Land Company's Website!


French River Land Company's Home Page!

Poetry of Power

FRL History

Hydrolec Disassembly

Hydrolec Rebuild

Key Personnel

Machine Shop

News Page

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Bill Munch


Rebuilding 120" Niles Boring Mill

For Sale


Alternatives Hydro

Anasagunticook Lake Dam Replacement-    C.Fay & W.Fay

Appleton HEP-Jim Lichoulas

Appleton Wisconsin Anniversary

Badger Pond Dam Removal

Senor Bonifettis' sites in Chile

Chittendon Falls

Claytor Dam

Collins Bascule Dam

ESAC WORKS      July 1985

Fiske Mill

1852 Fourneyron

Golden Pond Hydro

Harry Terbush Sites

Hunts Pond

Indian River Rebuild


Jaffery Fire Protection

Konkapot Creek

Lake May Pelton Wheel Removal

Livermore Falls

Martinsville Hydro



Shaker Mill Dam

Silk Knitters- Ron MacLeod

South Village Dam

Sparhawk Mills

Tannery Pond

Tannery Rebuild

Turners Falls Generator Rewind

Valatie Falls

Valley Paper

Wynoochee Hydro


Admitting Air to Turbine Runners Improves Efficiency, S. Logan Kerr

Air Admission to Hydro Runners, David Cox, USCOE, Kerr Dam

A Self-Adjusting Spring Bed Bearing- Henry G. Reist ASME 1646

The Banki Water Turbine Mockmoore and Merryfield

Barrel Stave Bearing Repair

Bearing Currents: Their Origin and Prevention C. T. Pearce

Bishops Method- STABGM Program

Blade Design Kovalev

Blade Pitting- Boving LTD 1930

Cavitation- Accelerated Research, Allis Chalmers Research

Cavitation & Vibration of a Draft Tube

Cavitation- Prevention & Reduction, Allis Chalmers Research

Causes & Effects of Cavitation in Hydraulic Turbines

Chain Turbine by: Nguyen Minh Duy

Chain Turbine Mechanics- Discussions with Duy

Characteristics of Modern Hydraulic Turbines-Chester Larner

Comparative Tests On Experimental Draft Tubes- C M Allen & I A Winter  1923

Design of an Overshot Waterwheel

(by Carl Weidner)

Design of Pelton Buckets

Design of Small Water Turbines for Farm and Small Communities

Design of the runner of a Kaplan turbine for small hydroelectric power plants: Timo Flaspöhler

Draft Tube Design

Draft Tubes of Hydro-Electric Stations by M. F. Gubin

Draft Tube Tests

Ejection into Tailraces of Hydropower Plants: S. M. Slisskii

Erection & Alignment of Vertical Waterwheel Generator Units-R.O. Standing

Evolution of Hydraulic Prime Movers-Byron McCoy

Fall Increaser- Henry Ford

Fall Increaser Herschel Venturi Tube

Fall Increaser Moody Ejector Turbine

Fall Increaser Hydraulic Jump Apron

Flashboard Pins

Gatecase Design- Kovalev

Generator Shaft Design Calculation- Olav Hodtvedt

Governor Theory for the Plant Operator

Graphics of Water Wheels- William Fox

Hydraulic Motors- M. Bresse & F. A. Mahan 1869

Hydraulic Power Transmission by Compressed Air



Hydraulic Rams their Principals and Construction by J. Wright Clarke

Hydraulic Turbine and Governor Field Erection Information

Hydraulic Turbines- Robert Long Daugherty

Hydraulic Turbines by Arnold Pfau

Hydraulic Turbines Gelpke & Van Cleve

Hydrokinetic Energy in Massachusetts, William D. B. Fay

Hydrostatic Beam Analysis


Impulse Turbines  by Ely Hutchinson

Interference fitting a large runner shaft

Kaplan Blade Design NACA Air Foil- Report No. 460

Kaplan Blade Design NACA Air Foil- Report No. 628

Kaplan Design- Kovalev

Kaplan Design Marko Kogovsek.xls

A Laboratory Study to Improve the Efficiency of Crossflow Turbines- N. Aziz & V. Desai

Loading Vertical Thrust Bearings R. C. Johnson

Low Head Hydroplants, Emil Mosonyi

Meggering Generators

Meggering      Earth Resistance

Motors as Generators for Microhydro, Nigel Smith

Miroslav Nechleba

Natick Dam Powerhouse Calcs

Operation & Maintenance of Hydro-Generators

Out Gassing of Cross Flow Turbines

Parallel Operation of Turbines Analysis

Pelton Design- Daugherty

Pole Key Extraction

Pouring a babbitt bearing

Powerhouse Design- Miniwatt Hydro

Powerhouse Design- Natick Dam

Power Plant Inspection


Rake-Newport News

Rack Design-Chicopee-Olav Hotvedt

Rack Design- PHI- Bill Fay

Rack Design-PHI-Brian French

Rack Design-PHI-Ken Smith

Rack Design-ASCE

Rack Design- Hydraulic Institue of Munich

Rack Design-Flow Induced Vibrations

Rigging a large generator

Selecting Hydraulic Reaction Turbines BUREC

Shafts- Kovalev

Shaft Couplings

Snows Improved Water Wheel Governor

Standard for Hydraulic Turbine and Generator Shaft Couplings and Shaft Runout Tolerances

Stoplog Design Calculation

Stoplog Structure Design Calculation

Stress Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Parts, BUREC- F.O. Ruud

Some Fluid Flow Characteristics of a Cross Flow Type Hydraulic Turbine- Durgin & Fay

Technology of Heavy Electric Machine Building HydroGenerators

Tenth Census of the US, 1880, Water Power of the US, Part I- Professor Trowbridge

Tenth Census of the US, 1880, Water Power of the US, Part II- Professor Trowbridge

Tests on a Kaplan Hydraulic Turbine

Tests Of A Rife Ram

Theoretical Conditions Related to an Open Channel Flow Linear Turbine- Ishida & Service

Theory of Turbines- De Volson Wood

Tidal Energy for Hydroelectric Power Plants by L. B. Bernshtein

Treatise relative to the Testing of Water-Wheels and Machinery, James Emerson 1879

Trash Rack Differential Equations 2L/3

Trashrack Differential Equations General Solution f(x)

Turbine Water-Wheel Tests- Robert Horton

Turgo, A High Speed Impulse Turbine- Paul Wilson

Vortices at Intakes

Water Hammer and Surge Tanks G. V. Aronovich

Water Hammer-Lorenzo Allievi-Text

Water Hammer-Lorenzo Allievi-Figures

Water Hammer-ASME Symposium 1933

Water Hammer _ Norman Gibson

Water Hammer-E.B.Strowger

Waterpower Engineering-Daniel Webster Mead

Water Turbines Contributions to Their Study, Computation and Design-S.J. Zowski

Water Wheel Design- Ken Smith



White Hydraucone Regainer

Wooden Penstocks


ASEA- Bearings for Large Vertical Hydro-Electric Machines

Bradway Turbine  (progressive gate)

C.P.Bradway Turbine

Brook Waterwheel

Charmilles Turbines

Christiana Machine (register gate)

Dayton Globe

Electric Machinery Company (EM)

English Pelton


Essex Turbines

GE WW Vert Gen

GE Springbed Brg

General Electric- Standard Specifications for Hydro Thrust Bearings and Runners

General Electric-Thrust Bearings as used in Large General Electric Hydraulic Turbine-driven Generators- GEA 2251E

GEH 527C

Gilkes Turbines


Head Gate Hoists- S. Morgan Smith

Holyoke Hercules

Hunt Cat 29 A&B

Hunt cylinder

J & W Jolly       (cylinder gate)

Kingsbury  Brg

Leffel Bulletin 38

Leffel Bulletin 54

Leffel Hoppes Unit

Leffel Laboratory Unit

Leffel Miscellaneous

Kingsbury Catalog C-1

Lombard Direct-Connected Oil Pressure Governors Bulletin N0. 113 October 1st, 1912

Lombard Governor

Lombard Governor Company Type T Instruction Book

Lombard Governors for Waterwheels and Steam Engines-1902

Lombard Water Wheel Governors Catalouge 26

Michell Bearings

Nohab- Water Turbines

Pelton Wheel (1909)

Pelton Wheel (1925)

Rife Hydraulic Engine

Ridgway Perfection Water-Wheel

Rodney Hunt

Samson PamK

Smith Bulletin 110

Smith Power Tables

Smith Kaplan

Smith Power

Smith Pelton

Smith Develop

Smith Turbines: Bulletin 105

Swain Turbine

Trump Hydraulic Turbines

Trump Turbines

Tyler Turbine

Vertical Shaft Water Wheel Driven Generators- General Electric

Wellman Seaver Morgan

Westinghouse Small Vertical Waterwheel-Driven A-C Generators, July 1944

Westinghouse WW Generators

Woodward Governor



Smith Alternative Energy:



Small Turbine Manufacturers Websites:




French River's Mission

French River Land Company (FRL) develops small and micro hydro resources.  As hydro developer, French River provides the unique experience, engineering and craftsmanship to build and operate hydro projects in the Northeast. 

William K. Fay P.E., FRL's President and General Manager, is a licensed hydro engineer who has inspected 80 dams for the Massachusetts Dam Safety Division and is authorized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to perform Part 12 inspections of licensed hydropower facilities.  He and his children, Celeste and Will, have rebuilt many small hydro plants located throughout New England.


_________________________________________________________________________________________________October November 1st, 2015, added:

1) A Self-Adjusting Spring Thrust Bearing- Henry G. Reist, ASME No. 1646.

2) Thrust Bearings as used in large General Electric Hydraulic Turbine-driven Generators GEA-2251E.

3) Standard General Electric Specifications for Hydro Thrust Bearings and Runner.

4) ASEA- Bearings for Large Vertical Hydro-Electric Machines.

5) Nohab- Water Turbines

6) Bearing Currents: Their Origin and Prevention.

7) Loading Vertical Thrust Bearings- Slug Arc Method R. C. Johnson Allis Chalmers Engineering Review.

8) Hydraulic Power Transmission by Compressed Air- Charles Havelock Taylor.


October 11th, 2015: added Water Hammer and Surge Tanks by G. V. Aronovich. Started cleaning up Pole Key Extraction Methods.

October 8th, 2015: added Rife Hydraulic Engine

October 3rd, 2015: added Pole Key Extraction Methods

Do cranes fly? I guess they can!!

September 12th, 2015, Added: Tests Of A Rife Ram, Graduation Thesis of Theodore W. Johnson & Arthur J. Wood 1896

September 7th, 2015: Finished: Tidal Energy

Added: Hydraulic Rams their Principals and Construction by J. Wright Clarke

August 22nd, 2015 started: Tidal Energy for Hydroelectric Power Plants by L. B. Bernshtein

August 9th, 2015 added: Technology of Heavy Electric Machine Building Hydro Generators by M. I. Zundelevich and S. A. Prutkovski


May 25th, 2015 Added Wynoochee

December 6th, 2014

Sorry about the 18 month hiatus. I took a job with Tacoma Power as their Generation Manager of Mechanical Engineers. I am in charge of the repair and upgrade of units ranging in size from 500 kilowatts to 200 megawatts. It is hard to describe all the cool projects I am working on. The following are some random updates:


Will amongst the Titans! Will is standing on the exciter service catwalk on top of the U21, a 29 MW, Allis Chalmers Hydro Generator. He came for Thanksgiving and we went on a tour.

 and here is a view of the complete machine:

Will is standing in front of one of LeGrande's baby 6 MW units installed in 1906.


Here Will is standing in front of one of Cushman 2's runners that were replaced with new Voith runners in 1998.

Will is standing in front of the newly welded upper generator bracket for our Wynoochee Plant. This baby 15 MW unit is a Russian turbine/generator set the City installed at a CORPS Dam in 1994.

Karen, Celesty and I attended the Hydro Vision International Conference in Nashville this past July. Celesty represented the Alden Research Laboratory and presented a paper on Luddington Pumped Storage intake design. During the conference she was surprised with an award that she was recognized as one of the outstanding woman in hydro!!! I was very proud of her!!


Here is an incredible photo of the new Andritz runner installed at Mossyrock. This runner swallows 6000 cfs at 303 feet of head. It is so beautiful. It has been operating since 2008 and there are no signs of cavitation:

We discovered cavitation on our LaGrande runners. I wrote a welding procedure for the repair work. The following photos depict some of the repair work:


Removing a LaGrande runner. Notice the overhung lifting jig used to lift the runner horizontally out of the gate case at its center of gravity. Note because of the head, the inlet blade section is larger in diameter than the discharge ring.

This is pitting caused by cavitation. Notice the metal has been eroded from the center of the blade leaving the blade hollow.

All position welding jig used to easily rotate the runner to the optimum position for repairing the pitting damage. The repair is made by grinding out the pitted metal hole and filling it back in with SS welding rod.

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Last modified: 11/01/15